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Tpb, Gc,Lca (21 Oktb 2013) Tugas

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    Doctorat en Ciències Ambientals

    Tesi Doctoral

    Ivan Muñoz Ortiz

    Bellaterra, març de 2006

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    Dr. XAVIER DOMÈNECH ANTUNEZ, Catedràtic del Departament de Química de la Universitat Autònoma de

    Barcelona,

    i

    Dr. SIXTO MALATO RODRÍGUEZ, Investigador Titular de OPI, Responsable de Detoxificación y Desinfección

    de Aguas del Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT),

    CERTIFIQUEM:

    Que la present memòria, titulada “Life Cycle Assessment as a Tool for Green Chemistry: Application to

    Different Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment ”, ha estat realitzada sota la nostra

    direcció a la Unitat de Química Física del Departament de Química de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

    pel llicenciat en Ciències Ambientals Ivan Muñoz Ortiz, i constitueix la seva tesi per optar al grau de Doctor en

    Ciències Ambientals.

    I perquè així consti, signem el present certificat a Bellaterra, 1 de març de 2006.

    Dr. Xavier Domènech Antúnez Dr. Sixto Malato Rodríguez

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      i

    CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements/Agraïments/Agradecimientos..............................................................................................................iii  

    Abbreviations .................................................................... .................................................................... .............................. v 

    CHAPTER 1. Object ives and Structure of the Study...................................................................................................... 1 

    1.1. Problem Setting............................................................................................................................................................2 

    1.2. Objectives ........................................................ .................................................................... ........................................ 5 

    1.3. Structure and Outline of the Study...............................................................................................................................6 

    References to Chapter 1.....................................................................................................................................................8  

    CHAPTER 2. Green Chemistr y: Concepts and Tools.....................................................................................................9 

    2.1. The Green Chemistry Framework..............................................................................................................................11 

    2.2. The Need to Measure “Greenness”............................................................................................................................19 

    2.3. Review of Tools for Environmental Assessment.................................................................... .................................... 20 

    References to Chapter 2 ........................................................ .................................................................. ......................... 31 

    CHAPTER 3. Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment ............................................... 35 

    3.1. Introduction ................................................................. ..................................................................... .......................... 37 

    3.2. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis .................................................................... .............................................................. 40 

    3.3. Ozonation...................................................................................................................................................................45 

    3.4. Homogeneous Photocatalysis: Fenton and photo-Fenton ................................................................... ...................... 49 

    3.5. AOPs as “Green” Chemical Processes......................................................................................................................53 

    References to Chapter 3 ........................................................ .................................................................. ......................... 57 

    CHAPTER 4. Environmental and Economic Assessment by means of L ife Cycle Tools ......................................... 61 

    4.1. Fundamentals of Life Cycle Assessment ...................................................................... ............................................. 63 

    4.2. LCA Applied to Chemical Products and Processes ........................................................................... ........................ 69 

    4.3. Streamlined LCA........................................................................................................................................................72 

    4.4. Life Cycle Costing ................................................................... ..................................................................... .............. 75 

    4.5. Integration of LCA and LCC ....................................................................... ................................................................ 81  

    4.6. Previous Environmental Assessments of AOPs for Wastewater Treatment .............................................................. 87 

    References to Chapter 4 ........................................................ .................................................................. ......................... 89 

    CHAPTER 5. Streamlined Life Cycle and Cost Assessment of different Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment ..................................................................... ...................................................................... ......... 95

    5.1. Goal and Scope .................................................................... ....................................................................... .............. 97 

    5.2. Inventory Analysis....................................................................................................................................................110  

    5.3. Life Cycle Impact Assessment ........................................................................ ......................................................... 113  

    5.4. Cost Assessment .............................................................. ........................................................................... ............ 120 

    5.5. Integration of Environmental Impact and Cost ..................................................................... .................................... 122 

    5.6. Conclusions and Recommendations........................................................................................................................124 

    References to Chapter 5.................................................................................................................................................127  

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      ii

    Appendix 5.1. Life Cycle Impact Assessment tables............................... ........................................................................ 129 

    CHAPTER 6. Life Cycle and Cost Assessment of a Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Wastewater Treatment ..................................................................... ................................................................ ............. 133

    6.1. The CADOX Project.................................................................................................................................................137 

    6.2. Goal and Scope .................................................................... ....................................................................... ............ 144  

    6.3. Inventory Analysis for Baseline Alternatives ......................................................................... ................................... 164 

    6.4. Life Cycle Impact Assessment for Baseline Alternatives .................................................................... ..................... 182 

    6.5. Sensitivity Analysis on Activated Carbon Production and Regeneration..................................................................187 

    6.6. Environmental Impact of Solar Photocatalysis as a Function of UV Light Available ................................................ 192 

    6.7. Assessment of Measures for Environmental Improvement......................................................................................196 

    6.8. Cost Assessment .............................................................. ........................................................................... ............ 205 

    6.9. Integration of Environmental Imp

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