tek minyak

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    Classified - Internal Use Only

    TEKNOLOGI MINYAK,

    OLEOKIMIA DAN EMULSI

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    MATERI KULIAH :

    1. TEKNOLOGI MINYAK DAN LEMAK

    o Perkembangan teknologi, definisi & sumber minyak/lemak

    o

    Reaksi dalam minyak/lemako Sifat fisiko kimia minyak/lemak

    o Kerusakan minyak/lemak

    o Ekstraksi dan pemurnian minyak/lemak

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    2. TEKNOLOGI OLEOKIMIA

    3. TEKNOLOGI EMULSI

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    The Importance of Fats/Oils

    a. High content of energy (the greatest possible storage of energy in the

    smallest possible amount of food substance)

    b. Allow human to consume fat soluble-vitamins and provide essential

    fatty acids

    c. Provide a smooth, creamy consistency to many dishes (good mouth-

    feel)

    d. Economic aspect (> 90 mill ton of oils and fats).national interest- 60 mill ton of palm fruit

    - 11 mill ton of olives

    - > 200 mill of oil seeds

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    e. Substantial market for technical fats

    Oil type and non food usage (%)

    - Soybean oil 0.25

    - Palm oil 10- Palm kernel oil 10

    - Rapeseed oil 40

    - Coconut oil 55

    - Castor oil 100

    - Linseed oil 100

    - Tung oil 100

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    Type of usage (% of total non food usage)

    - Fatty acids 36

    - Animal feed 29

    - Soap 15- Other 13

    - Paints 3

    - Lubricants 2

    - Polymers 2

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    Comparison of Diesel oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil

    Sunflower Rapeseed

    Diesel oil Crude oil Methyl ester Crude oil Methyl ester

    1. Caloric value (MJ/kg) 42-46 39.28 40.16 37 37.02-37.20

    2. Density (g/cm3) 0.835 0.925 0.880 0.92 0.86-0.90

    3. Viscosity (cP, 20oC) 3.9 34.7 4.22 68-97 6-9

    4. Flash point (oC) 50-77 215.5 183 317-324 111-175

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    Energy balance from renewable sourcesSource Energy balance invested/yielded Energy yield net (GJ/ha)

    Sunflower oil 2.8 43.3

    Rapeseed oil 2.7 37.9

    Ethanol (sugar beet) 2.5 58.9Corn 1.3 18.4

    Wheat 1.1 5.2

    Requirements for fuel esters

    FFA < 0.2%

    Mono, diglycerides < 0.1%

    Glycerol < 0.1%

    Methanol < 0.2%

    Water < 0.1%

    Metals (each) < 5 ppm

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    Components of fats and oils

    Fats/Oils : esters of fatty acids with the trihydric alcohol glycerol

    1. Glycerol

    - propane-1,2,3-triol)- Physical data (molecular weight 92.11, melting point 20oC,

    density 1.2611 g/cm3, viscosity 1 759.6 cP, solubility in

    water/alcohol infinitely)

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    Fatty Acid

    o > 200 are known

    o Monocarbonic acid, usually derived from aliphatic hydrocarbon

    o The structure of fatty acid has a great influence on their physicaldata

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    Occurrence of Fatty Acids

    Saturated fatty acids (CnH2nO2)

    n Trivial name Occurrence in common oils and fats

    4 Butyric Milk fats (3 5)

    6 Caproic milk fat (2-3), coconut oil (

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    Fats and oils of plant origin

    Linseed oil : seed of the flax plant Linum usitatissimum, major constituentlinolenic acid, mainly used in the paint and varnish industry

    Tung Oil (China wood oil) : seed or nut of the tree Aleurites fordii and

    Aleurites montana, highly unsaturated oil (eleostearic acid), rapid dryingproperties

    Sunflower seed oil : major constituent linoleic and oleic acids

    Corn oil : oleic and linoleic acids

    Tomato seed oil : by product of tomato paste manufacture, oleic andlinoleic acids

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    Sesame oil : oleic and linoleic acids, high content of saponifiable mattersuch as sesamine and seasamoline (give distinctive color reaction)

    Cotton seed oil : high content of linoleic acid

    Safflower oil : seed of Carthamus tinctorius, linoleic acid, drying oil

    (intermediate characteristic between soybean and linseed oil)

    Soybean oil : high content of linoleic acid, the crude oil contains largeamount of non glyceride material (phosphatide)

    Rice bran oil : bran of Oryza sativa, contain large amount of non glyceridematerial and active lipase, the acidity (during storage) rises at the rate of 1%

    per hour

    Kapok oil : seed of Ceiba pentandra, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids

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    Castor oil : seed of Ricinus communis, high acetyl or hydroxyl value, highspecific gravity, high viscosity, high solubility in glacial acetic acid, lowersolubility in petroleum solventhigh content of ricinoleic acid

    Palm oil : palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids

    Palm kernel oil : lauric and myristic acids

    Cocoa butter/cacao butter : bean of Theobroma cacao, has a specific odorand flavor, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids

    Coconut oil : has a specific odor, lauric and myristic acids

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    Fats of animal origin

    Hog (pig) fat or lard : bacon (subcutaneous fatty tissue), lard/hog fat (renderedfrom the internal tissues), palmitic, stearic and oleic acids

    Tallow : from the fatty tissues of cattle, sheep and goats, palmitic, stearic and

    oleic acids

    Sardine oil : from the body of the Caerulea and Ocelata sardinops, palmiticacid

    Cod liver oil : from the fish Gadus morrhua, high content of vit A and D

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    Physical PropertiesSpecific gravity/Density

    - the specific gravity increases along with increase in the degree ofunsaturation

    - the hydrogenation of fat lower their specific gravity

    Melting Point

    - the melting point of a fatty acid increases together with the increase in thechain length of the acids

    - the higher unsaturation degree of a substance the lower its melting point

    - the melting point of a triglyceride is related to that of the correspondingfatty acids

    - the melting point of a diglyceride is higher than that of the correspondingtriglyceride

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    Butyric acid -8Caproic acid -1

    Caprylic acid 16

    Capric acid 31.3

    Lauric acid 43.4

    Myristic acid 54.4

    Palmitic acid 62.9

    Stearic acid 69.6

    Oleic acid 16

    Elaidic acid 44Erucic acid 34

    Linoleic acid -7

    Linolenic acid -13

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    Boiling Point

    -the boiling point of fatty acids increases together with increase in their chainlength

    - the vapour pressure of a glyceride is always considerably lower than that of

    the corresponding fatty acidIodine Value : a measure for determining the unsaturation degree of fats andfatty acids, defined as the amount of iodine (in gram) which is absorbed by100 gram of fat

    Peroxide Value : a measure for determining the content of reactive oxygen

    of fats and oils in terms of milliequivalents of oxygen per 1000 gram fats, forevaluating their keeping qualities or shelf life.

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    Acid Value : a measure used for determining the content of free fatty acidscontained in oils/fats; defined as the number of milligrams of potassium

    hydroxide needed to neutralize the FFA contained in 1 gram of fat; the acidity

    of fats and oils is expressed in terms of %FFA; acid value : FFA = 1 : 0.503

    Saponification Value : the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide

    needed to saponify 1 gram of fat.

    Acetyl Value : refers to the determination of the free hydroxyl groups

    contained in fats and oils; represented by the number of milligrams of

    potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize the acetic acid produced by

    splitting of 1 gram of acetylated fat

    Hydroxyl Value : the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to

    neutralize the number of hydroxyls contained in 1 gram of fatty acids.

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    MINOR COMPONENTS OF FATS AND OILS

    Phosphatides

    glycerophosphatides

    sphyngolipids

    Unsaponifiables (the portion of oils and fats which is not saponified; varies0.5 2%)

    sterols (simply alicyclic alcohols)

    vitamins-tocopherols (vit A, D, E, K)

    waxes (the fatty acids present instead of bei

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