Culture - Budaya Sebagai Dasar Tata Kelola Organisasi
Workshop Tatakelola TI Dinas Kominfo Provinsi Jawa Timur Sidoarjo, 2013
Culture collective programming of the mind
Based on Values & Norms Values deeply held underlying beliefs and attitudes that help
determine a persons behavior
Norms unwritten rules and codes and conduct that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular situations and shape the behavior of people toward one another.
The Organizations Culture
A system of shared meanings and common beliefs held by organizational members that determines, in a large degree, how they act towards each other.
The way we do things around here.
Values, symbols, rituals, myths, and practices
Culture is a perception.
Culture is shared.
Culture is descriptive.
Dimensions of Organizational Culture
Contrasting Organizational Cultures
Dimension Organization A Organization B
Attention to Detail High Low
Outcome Orientation Low High
People Orientation Low High
Team Orientation Low High
Aggressiveness Low High
Stability High Low
Innovation and Risk Taking Low High
2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 37
Strong versus Weak Cultures
Strong Cultures Are cultures in which key values are deeply held and widely held.
Have a strong influence on organizational members.
Factors Influencing the Strength of Culture Size of the organization No impact with IT
Age of the organization
Rate of employee turnover
Strength of the original culture
Clarity of cultural values and beliefs
Benefits of a Strong Culture
Creates a stronger employee commitment to the organization.
Aids in the recruitment and socialization of new employees.
Fosters higher organizational performance by instilling and promoting employee initiative.
Sources of Organizational Culture The organizations founder
Vision and mission
Past practices of the organization
The way things have been done
The behavior of top management
Continuation of the Organizational Culture Recruitment of like-minded employees who fit
Socialization of new employees to help them adapt to the culture
Strong versus Weak Organizational Cultures
How Employees Learn Culture
Narratives of significant events or actions of people that convey the spirit of the organization
Repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the values of the organization
Physical assets distinguishing the organization
Acronyms and jargon of terms, phrases, and word meanings specific to an organization
How Culture Affects Managers
Cultural Constraints on Managers
Whatever managerial actions the organization recognizes as proper or improper on its behalf
Whatever organizational activities the organization values and encourages
The overall strength or weakness of the organizational culture
Simple rule for getting ahead in an organization:
Find out what the organization rewards and do those things.
How an Organizations Culture Is Established and Maintained
Managerial Decisions Affected by Culture
The degree of risk that plans should contain
Whether plans should be developed by individuals or teams
The degree of environmental scanning in which management will engage
How much autonomy should be designed into employees jobs
Whether tasks should be done by individuals or in teams
The degree to which department managers interact with each other
Managerial Decisions Affected by Culture (contd)
The degree to which managers are concerned with increasing employee job satisfaction
What leadership styles are appropriate
Whether all disagreementseven constructive onesshould be eliminated
Whether to impose external controls or to allow employees to control their own actions
What criteria should be emphasized in employee performance evaluations
What repercussions will occur from exceeding ones budget
Spirituality and Organizational Culture
The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community.
Characteristics of a Spiritual Organization
Strong sense of purpose
Focus on individual development
Trust and openness
Toleration of employees expression
Benefits of Spirituality
Improved employee productivity
Reduction of employee turnover
Stronger organizational performance
Increased employee satisfaction
Increased team performance
Increased organizational performance
The Role of Culture in Governance
Helps us organize our world
Shared values, understandings, assumptions and goals (values, beliefs, norms)
Learned from earlier generation
Imposed by present members of society
Culture and Its Effects on Organizations
Once upon a time there was a great flood, and involved in this flood were two creatures, a monkey and a fish. The monkey, being agile and experienced, was lucky enough to scramble up a tree and escape the raging waters. As he looked down from his safe perch, he saw the poor fish struggling against the swift current. With the best of intentions, he reached down and lifted the fish from the water. The result was inevitable.
Culture and Its Effects on Organizations
Hofstede Cultural Framework
1. Power Distance
2. Individualism vs. Collectivism
3. Masculinity vs. Femininity
4. Uncertainty Avoidance
5. Long Term (Time)
Power Distance degree to which societies accept the economic and social differences in wealth, status, and well-being that result
from differences in individual capabilities.
Low PD large inequities are not allowed
e.g., USA & UK
High PD large gap between rich and poor
E.g., Russia, China, & France
High Power Distance
Order of inequality
Subordinates are different from superiors
Boss should know all
Low Power Distance
Subordinates and superiors are equals
Ok for boss to ask subordinates for answers
Power Distance Comparisons High
High Power Distance Employee Expectations
Wrong to disagree with the boss
Paternalistic (father-like) management style
Boss should know all the answers
Boss should have more privileges
Uncertainty Avoidance refers to differences in tolerances for
uncertainty and risk.
Low uncertainty avoidance countries are easygoing, value diversity,
and tolerate differences in personal beliefs and actions
e.g., USA & UK
High uncertainty avoidance countries are more rigid and skeptical
about people whose behaviors or beliefs differ from the norm.
e.g., Russia, China, France, & Japan
Dissonance is dangerous
Time is money
Need written rules and regulations
Believe in experts
Willing to take risks
Time is free
Prefer common sense to rules
Logic and common sense better than expert opinions
Uncertainty Avoidance Average=64
High avoidance of risk Willing to take risks
Individualism v. Collectivism
Individualism worldview that values individual freedom and self-expression and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their individual
achievements rather than their social background.
e.g., USA, UK, Russia, & France
Collectivism worldview that values subordination of the individual to the goals of the group and adherence to the principles that people should be judged by
their contribution to the group.
e.g., China & Japan
Responsible for self and immediate family
Identity based on the in
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