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Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak - blog. · PDF filePengenalan Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak 1 1 Pengenalan...

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  • Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak

  • ii

  • iii

  • iv

    DAFTAR ISI

    KATA PENGANTAR ..................................................................... iii DAFTAR ISI .................................................................................... iv 1 Pengenalan Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak ............................... 1 1.1 Latar belakang Disiplin Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak ................................. 2 1.2 Krisis Perangkat Lunak .................................................................................. 2 1.3 Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak ........................................................................... 3 1.4 Mutu Perangkat Lunak .................................................................................. 3 1.5 Kategori Perangkat Lunak ............................................................................ 4 1.6 Karakteristik Perangkat Lunak .................................................................... 5 1.7 Proses Perangkat Lunak ................................................................................ 5 1.8 Karakteristik Proses Perangkat Lunak ....................................................... 6 1.9 Daur Hidup Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak ............................................ 7 1.10 Model Proses Perangkat Lunak ................................................................... 8 1.11 Model Waterfall (Air Terjun) ...................................................................... 8 1.12 Biaya Perangkat Lunak ................................................................................... 9 1.13 Pemilihan Sebuah Bahasa Pemrograman ................................................... 9 1.14 Programming-in-the Small Concerns & Programming-in-the Large

    Concerns....................................................................................................... 10 1.14.1 Programming-in-the Small ......................................................................... 10 1.14.2 Programming-in-the Large......................................................................... 11 2 Model Proses Perangkat Lunak ........................................... 16 2.1 Pengembangan Perangkat Lunak .............................................................. 17 2.2 Siklus Pengembangan Perangkat Lunak .................................................. 17 2.3 Model Proses Pengembangan Perangkat Lunak .................................... 17 2.3.1 Linear Sequential Model ............................................................................ 18 2.3.2 Prototyping Model ...................................................................................... 18 2.3.3 RAD (Rapid Application Development) Model .................................... 19 2.3.4 Incremental Model ...................................................................................... 20 2.3.5 Spiral Model .................................................................................................. 20 2.3.6 Component Assembly Model ................................................................... 21 2.3.7 Fourth Generation Techniques (4GT) ................................................... 21 3 Rekayasa Sistem................................................................... 24 3.1 Pengertian Dasar ......................................................................................... 25 3.1.1 Apa yang Disebut Rekayasa Sistem?........................................................ 25

  • v

    3.1.2 Sistem Berbasis Komputer ........................................................................ 25 3.2 Rekayasa Informasi...................................................................................... 26 3.2.1 Perencanaan Strategi Informasi ................................................................ 28 3.2.2 Analisa Area Bisnis ...................................................................................... 32 3.3 Rekayasa Produk ......................................................................................... 35 3.3.1 Analisa Sistem .............................................................................................. 35 3.3.2 Identifikasi Kebutuhan ................................................................................ 36 3.3.3 Studi Kelayakan ............................................................................................ 36 3.3.4 Analisis Ekonomis........................................................................................ 37 3.3.5 Analisis Teknis ............................................................................................. 38 3.4 Pemodelan Arsitektur Sistem ................................................................... 39 3.5 Spesifikasi Sistem ......................................................................................... 42 4 Analisa Kebutuhan Perangkat Lunak .................................. 45 4.1 Kebutuhan..................................................................................................... 46 4.1.1 Apa yang Disebut Kebutuhan? ................................................................. 46 4.1.2 Mengapa Kebutuhan Penting? ................................................................... 47 4.2 Analisis Kebutuhan...................................................................................... 49 4.2.1 Pengertian ..................................................................................................... 49 4.2.2 Tahapan Analisis Kebutuhan ..................................................................... 49 4.2.3 Metode Analisis ........................................................................................... 53 4.3 Spesifikasi Kebutuhan Perangkat Lunak (SKPL) .................................... 54 4.3.1 Tujuan Pembuatan SKPL ............................................................................ 55 4.3.2 Syarat Pembentukan SKPL ........................................................................ 55 4.3.3 Atribut Penulisan SKPL yang Baik ............................................................ 56 4.3.4 Tata Letak Dokumen SKPL ....................................................................... 59 4.4 Analisis Terstruktur .................................................................................... 59 4.4.1 Pengertian ..................................................................................................... 60 4.4.2 Perangkat Pemodelan Analisis Terstruktur ........................................... 60 4.4.3 Tahap Analisis Terstruktur ....................................................................... 73 4.4.4 Mekanisme Analisis Terstruktur .............................................................. 75 5 Perancangan Perangkat Lunak ........................................... 78 5.1 Pengertian ..................................................................................................... 79 5.2 Prinsip Perancangan .................................................................................... 80 5.3 Konsep Perancangan .................................................................................. 81 5.4 Transformasi Model Analisa ke Perancangan ........................................ 84 5.5 Tahap Perancangan ..................................................................................... 85 5.5.1 Perancangan Data ........................................................................................ 85 5.5.2 Perancangan Arsitektur Perangkat Lunak .............................................. 87 5.5.3 Perancangan Antarmuka (Interface) ........................................................ 92 5.5.4 Perancangan Prosedural (Spesifikasi Program) ..................................... 94

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    5.6 Dokumentasi Perancangan ........................................................................ 95 6 Implementasi Perangkat Lunak .......................................... 99 6.1 Aktivitas Implementasi ............................................................................. 100 6.2 Aktivitas Pemrograman ............................................................................ 100 6.2.1 Standar Program yang Baik ..................................................................... 100 6.3 Modularitas ................................................................................................. 103 6.3.1 Kriteria Modularitas ................................................................................. 103 6.3.2 Aturan Modularitas ................................................................................... 104 6.3.3 Prinsip Modularitas ................................................................................... 105 6.3.4 Kriteria Modul yang Baik ......................................................................... 105 6.4 Abstraksi Data ........................................................................................... 106 6.5 Analisis Statik ............................................................................................. 107 6.5.1 Data Flow Analysis.................................................................................... 108 7 Pengujian Perangkat Lunak ............................................... 111 7.1 Dasar-Dasar Pengujian Perangkat Lunak ............................................. 112 7.1.1 Sasaran Pengujian Perangkat Lunak ....................................................... 112 7.1.2 Prinsip Pengujian Perangkat Lunak ........................................................ 112 7.1.3 Testabilitas .................................................................................................. 113 7.2 Perancangan Kasus Uji ............................................................................. 116 7.2.1 White-Box Testing .......................................................................

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