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Pengantar Inovasi (Introduxtion to Innovation)

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Disampaikan pada Ceramah Umum Diklat Kepemimpinan Tingkat III Pusdiklat Kementerian Dalam Negeri Regional Yogyakarta 12 Mei 2014
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Microsoft PowerPoint - Pengantar Inovasi (Introduxtion to Innovation) [Compatibility Mode]

Deputi Inovasi Administrasi Negara

Lembaga Administrasi Negara RIJl. Veteran No. 10 Jakarta

Seri Inovasi Administrasi Negara

Tri Widodo W. Utomo

Page 2

Daftar Penyajian

1. Antara Kreativitas, Invensi, dan Inovasi2. Konsep Inovasi dan Kriterianya3. Mengapa Berinovasi?4. Bagaimana Berinovasi?5. Manajemen Inovasi6. Kategori Inovasi7. Anak Tangga dan Hambatan Inovasi8. Penutup

Bagian I

Antara Kreativitas, Invensi & Inovasi

Page 4

KREATIVITAS Sebagai Pemantik

KREATI-VITAS

Page 5

Invention is the first innovation within some class of objects. A new member of an already existing category of objects is an innovation, but the first

of the objects within that category is an invention.

(Arthur B. Markman and Kristin Wood, 2009, Tools for Innovation: The science behind the

practical methods that drive new ideas, Oxford University Press)

Inventing is the creation of new knowledge or new ideas; Innovation is the integration of existing technology and inventions to create a new or improved product, process, or system.

(Ravi K. Jain, Harry C. Triandis, and Cynthia W. Weick, 2010, Managing Research,

Development, and Innovation: Managing the Unmanagable, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Page 6

Creativity is manifested in the production of a creative work (for example, a new work of art or a scientific hypothesis) that is both original

and useful.

Innovation begins with creative ideas. Creativity by individuals and teams is a starting

point for innovation; the first is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the second.

Jiri Vacek, 2009, Innovation Management, Dept. of Management, Innovations and Project,

Faculty of Economic UWB.

Bagian II

Konsep Inovasi & Kriterianya

Page 8

Page 9

Producing something new, whether services, product, or market being developed (Martin Schuursman, Chairman of European Institute of Innovation and Technology).

Turning ideas into money (Larry Hirst, Chairman of IBM EMEA).

The catalyst for economic growth in order company to grow and succeed (Anthony William, Senior Fellow Lisbon

Council / Co-author Wikinomics).

Introduction of new process or product whether in government, business or philanthropic/social setting (Andrew Wyckoff, Director of Science, Technology and Industry,

OECD).

Creating value for users, adding new ways of doing things (Rian Liebenberg, Engineering Director Google).

Page 10

Turning ideas into commercial variable, opportunity which creates jobs, new company and growth (Ben Butters, Director European Affairs, Euro-chambers).

Bringing tools closer to people, figuring at a more efficient way of doing things. Turning traditional ways upside down (Rian Liebenberg, Engineering Director

Google).

Without innovation companies die, without innovation societies die too (Anthony William, Senior Fellow

Lisbon Council / Co-author Wikinomics).

An improvement of something already exists or introducing something totally new. Its not only about

technology, it is also about organization (Joeri van den Steenhoven, Charmain and Co-founder, Kennisland).

Page 11

Inovasi berasal dari bahasa Latin innovtus, yg berartimemperbarui (to renew). Jadi, inovasi adalah proses pembaruan sesuatu yg sudah ada, bukanmemperkenalkan sesuatu yang baru.

Membuat perubahan pada suatu hal yg sudah ada, terutama dengan cara memperkenalkan metode-metode baru (New Oxford American).

Sesuatu yang berbeda dan berdampak (Scott D. Anthony, The Little Black Book of Innovation, Jakarta: Elex Media Komputindo, 2013).

The implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organizational method in business practices, workplace organization or external relations

(Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation, Paris: OECD, 2005).

Page 12

Innovation means technologies or practices that are new to a given society. They are not necessarily new in absolute terms. These technologies or practices are being diffused in that economy or society what is

not disseminated and used is not an innovation.

Innovation is distinct from research and in fact need not result from it. Innovations come from the entrepreneurs who make them happen and ultimately depend on a societys receptiveness.

(World Bank, Innovation Policy: A Guide for Developing Countries, 2010).

Page 13

Ada tidaknya dampak positif ataukemanfaatan dari suatu inisiatif perubahan;

Mampu tidaknya inisiasi perubahan memberisolusi terhadap masalah yg ada;

Harus berkesinambungan, tidak tergantungpada inisiator / konseptornya;

Memiliki kompatibilitas dengan sistem diluardirinya, tidak membentur / melanggar sistemyg telah ada.

Bagian III

MENGAPA BERINOVASI?

Page 15

Sumber: Types of innovation - Choosing where to innovate

Needs to grow

Page 16

Page 17

Page 18

2013

2040

Bagian IV

BAGAIMANA BERINOVASI?

Page 20

MENYIRAM anggaran, dukungan.

MENYIANGI kompetisi, deregulasi, komunikasi.

MEMUPUK kajian, informasi.

MENYIAPKAN LAHAN pelatihan.

Sumber: World Bank, Innovation Policy: A Guide for Developing Countries, 2010.

Page 21

Peter F. Drucker, 2006,Innovation & Entrepreneurship,

HarperCollins

Page 22

1. Establishing sense of urgency;2. Forming a powerful guiding coalition;3. Creating a vision;4. Communicating the vision;5. Empowering others to act the vision;6. Planning for and creating short-term wins;7. Consolidating improvements and

producing more changes;8. Institutionalizing new approaches.

John P Kotter, Leading Change: Why

Transformation Efforts Fail?

Bagian V

Manajemen INOVASI

Page 24

1. Penuangan praktek2

inovasi, publikasi dll.

2. Policy Brief.3. Innovation Dialogue.

1. Analisis Gap & Identifikasikebutuhan inovasi.

2. Benchmarking, stock-taking

1. Pematanganinisiatif inovasi.

2. Pendampingan / pelatihan.

1. Pemilihan area inovasi.

2. Penetapan kerangkakerja inovasi

(metode, rencanacapaian, dll).

1. Pelaksanaan inovasi.

2. Monev / impact assessment.

3. Lessons learned.

Page 25

Inkubasi: waktu/masa yg dibutuhkan untuk melaksanakanobservasi atau aksi dan intervensi tertentu, sampai muncul

perubahan dari kondisi awal menjadi kondisi baru.

Inisiatif baru biasanya dicirikan: pengalaman terbatas, keterampilan manajerial minim, jejaring usaha sedikit, dukungan / kepercayaan publik terbatas. Maka, perlu ujicoba, market testing, atau piloting sebelum berjalan

sepenuhnya.

Di AS: tanpa inkubasi, 66% bisnis pemula masih beradapada kdisi yang sama setelah 2 th berjalan, dan 44% masihtetap sama dan tidak tumbuh setelah 4 tahun (Amy E. Knaup, Survival and Longevity in the Business Employment Dynamics Database).

Inkubasi diibaratkan jembatan lembah kematian (valley of death) yang menghubungkan dua bukit batu terjal.

Page 26

Program / aktivitas selama masa inkubasi: mengembangkan kapasitas pelaku usaha / inovator, mematangkan rencana dan fokus usaha, melengkapi sarana dan metode kerja, mengembangkan teknologi (jika diperlukan), menutupi defisiensi dana, mengurangi defisit kompetensi (mal-keterampilan)

pegawai melalui training, dsb.

Inkubasi bukan jaminan thd kesuksesan usaha atauinovasiStephen Wunker (Incubating Innovation, Forbes, Des. 2007):

dari 300 perusahaan yg disurvei hanya 47% yg merasa puasdengan pencapaian tujuan strategis organisasi setelah ikutprogram inkubasi, dan yg puas dengan pencapaian target finansial hanya 24%.

Page 27

Logika inkubasi:Jika dengan inkubasi saja masih adakemungkinan kurang berhasilnya sebuahusaha/inovasi, apalagi jika tanpa melaluiinkubasi.

Jiang Zemin:(Presiden China 1993-2003): Incubation is one

of the single most important global innovations of the 21st century

Page 28

Analogi Replikasi:

Foto copy, Cangkok tanaman, Franchise (KFC, Alfamart, Brownies Amanda, dll)

Esensi Replikasi:

Memperbanyak praktik inovasi secara cepat dengankondisi & mutu yg relatif sama dengan sumber aslinya.

Dengan replikasi, tidak perlu memulai sesuatu dari nol, atau melakukan riset dan eksperimen yg panjang, ataumengeluarkan biaya investasi yg amat besar.

Replikasi akan menghemat waktu, tenaga, biaya, danmenekan kemungkinan gagal dari inisiatif inovasi.

Page 29

Bagaimana Melakukan Replikasi?

Benchmarking dan studi banding,

Pelatihan teknis dan simulasi bagaimana sebuahinovasi itu dikelola, dimonitor, dan dikembangkan,

Kota kembar, sister institution, atau sejenisnya,

Stelsel Aktif: 1) mempelajari & mengumpulkan data mengapa inovasi tertentu berhasil diterapkan; 2) menyiapkan rencana & skenario yg matang tentangbagaimana replikasi akan diterapkan, termasuk aspekanggaran, tim pelaksana, tahapan dan kerangkawaktunya; 3) melakukan monitoring & menjamintercapainya target-target yg direncanakan.

Bagian VI

KATEGORI INOVASI

Page 31

Incremental Innovation Doing more of the same things you have been doing with somewhat

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