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Orientasi tubuh manusia · PDF filesehingga sering disebut sebagai anatomi deskriptif atau...

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Paryono/Anatomi/Poltekkes Ska 03/12/2011

1

ORIENTASI

TUBUH

MANUSIABy. Paryono

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Paryono/Anatomi/Poltekkes Ska 03/12/2011

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Allah SWT berfirman :Allah SWT berfirman :QS AtQS At--Tiin (95) : 4Tiin (95) : 4

Sesungguhnya kami telah menciptakan manusia dalam bentuk yang sebaik-baiknya.

Dialah yang membentuk kamu dalam rahim sebagaimana dikehendaki-Nya tak ada tuhan (yang berhak di sembah) melainkan

Dia, yang Maha Perkasa lagi Maha Bijaksana.3Paryono/anatomi/Poltekkes Ska

PROSES KEJADIAN MANUSIAAllah menciptakan Manusia dalam 4 model

Proses Penciptaan Nabi Adam AS

Proses Penciptaan Bunda Hawa

Proses Penciptaan Nabi Isa AS

Proses Penciptaan Kebanyakan Manusia

QS Al-Muminuun (23) 12-14

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PENCIPTAAN MANUSIAQS Al-Muminuun (23) 12-14

Dan sesungguhnya Kami telah menciptakan manusia dari

suatu sari pati (berasal) dari tanah.

Kemudian Kami jadikan sari pati itu air mani (yang disimpan)

ditempat yang kukuh (rahim).

Kemudian air mani itu Kami jadikan segumpal darah, lalu

segumpal darah itu kami jadikan segumpal daging, dan

segumpal daging itu kami jadikan tulang belulang, lalu tulang

belulang itu kami bungkus dengan daging . Kemudian kami

jadikan dia makhluk yang (berbentuk) lain. Maka Maha

Sucilah Allah, Pencipta yang paling baik.

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Dari sudut medis, anatomi terdiri dari berbagai

pengetahuan tentang bentuk, letak, ukuran, dan

hubungan berbagai struktur dari tubuh manusia sehat

sehingga sering disebut sebagai anatomi deskriptif atau

topografis.

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APAKAH ANATOMI ITU ?

Anatomi (Greek: ana: apart; temmein: to cut)

Memotong bagian-bagian tubuh (Latin

equivalent: dissecare diseksi)

AnatomyAnatomy((DiscplineDiscpline/field of /field of

scientific study)scientific study)

DissectionDissection(One of the methods/ (One of the methods/

techniques used in techniques used in

studying the body)studying the body)

7Paryono/anatomi/Poltekkes Ska

ANATOMI

Bagian ilmu biologi yang mempelajari tentang

struktur dan fungsi tubuh

Mempelajari struktur kehidupan manusia

Cannot be learned completely by

studying the bodies of dead persons

Dasar dari ilmu-ilmu kesehatan

APAKAH ANATOMI ITU ?

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Bagaimana mempelajari ANATOMI ?

Mempelajari etimologi (derivation of words)

Helps remember anatomy and find the process enjoyable

Cecum caecus (Lat.): blind The cecum is a blind pouch lying inferior to the terminal

portion of ileum (Lat.: roll up/twist) The ileum is a highly coiled/rolled up part of the small

intestines

MEMORISINGMEMORISING(New language:4500 (New language:4500

words)words)

UNDERSTANDINGUNDERSTANDINGThe links between structure & The links between structure & functionfunctionIntellectually more satisfyingIntellectually more satisfyingIt makes its long term It makes its long term retention easierretention easier

vs

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SEJARAH ANATOMI Ilmu dasar medis paling tua dipelajari (500 thn S.M

Pertama kali ditulis oleh Papyruses antara 3000-2500 S.M.

Diajarkan oleh Hippocrates Thn 460-377S.M.sekaligus disebut sebagai bapak kedokteran

Aristoteles (384-322 SM)

sebagai orang pertama yang menggunakan istilah anatomi

Andreas Vesaliuss 1514-1564) mempublikasikan anatomi & era baru. Anatomi menjadi disipline ilmu yang obyektif. Dasar pertama seni ilmu kedokteran

Williem Harvey di era Hieroniymus Frabiceus (1537-1619) menemukan katub vena.

1628 publikasi buku Harveys Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Anamalibus.

Abad 17 diseksi manusia menjadi pembelajaran anatomi di sekolah-sekolah Eropa

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GENERAL SUBDIVISIONS OF ANATOMY

MACROANATOMY Naked eyes

(Macroscopic/Gross Anatomy)

Included: SURFACE Observation,

ANATOMY palpation, percussion,

auscultation

MICROANATOMY MicroscopeCYTOLOGY cells

HISTOLOGY tissues

EMBRYOLOGY Development of the

structures

COMPARATIVE Examine

ANATOMY the structures

of other animals

AA

NN

AA

TT

OO

MM

YY

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METHODS OF METHODS OF

STUDYING STUDYING

ANATOMY ANATOMY

DISSECTION (Cadaver)

SURFACE ANATOMY (Living body)

(observation, palpation, percussion,auscultation)

ENDOSCOPY (Living body: internal

structures)/invasive

ORGAN IMAGE (noninvasive, nondestructive)

RADIOLOGY

X-ray

(radiographs, contrast

media, tomography,

computer-assisted

tomography/CAT/CT)

ULTRASONO-

GRAPHY

(USG)

ultrasound

wave

MAGNETIC

RESONANCE

IMAGING(MRI)*

electromagnetic

wave

RADIOISOTOPE

IMAGING

uptake of

isotope

radioactive

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PENDEKATAN BELAJAR ANATOMI

ANATOMI REGIONAL

Topografi tubuh manusia sebagai segmen-segmen

(kepala, leher, badan, anggota dll)

Mempelajari tubuh manusia yang memfokuskan

pada bagian tertentu

Anatomi regional dapat dilihat dari :

Anatomi permukaan >>>pemeriksaan dng palpasi

Anatomi viceral>>>dengan radiografi

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Lanjutan

ANATOMI SISTEMIK

Mempelajari anatomi berdasarkan sistem

(Integumen, skeletal, artikuler, muskuler,nervous,

sirkulasi, digestivus, respiratorius, urinarius,

reproduksi, endokrin)

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Levels of Structural Organization

Figure 1.1

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Levels of Structural Organization

Figure 1.1, step 1

Molecules

Atoms

Chemical level

Atoms combine to

form molecules

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Levels of Structural Organization

Figure 1.1, step 2

Smooth muscle cellMolecules

AtomsCellular level

Cells are made up of

molecules

Chemical level

Atoms combine to

form molecules

17Paryono/anatomi/Poltekkes Ska

Levels of Structural Organization

Figure 1.1, step 3

Smooth muscle cellMolecules

Atoms

Smooth

muscle

tissue

Cellular level

Cells are made up of

molecules

Tissue level

Tissues consist of

similar types of cells

Chemical level

Atoms combine to

form molecules

18Paryono/anatomi/Poltekkes Ska

Paryono/Anatomi/Poltekkes Ska 03/12/2011

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Levels of Structural Organization

Figure 1.1, step 4

Smooth muscle cellMolecules

Atoms

Smooth

muscle

tissue

Epithelial

tissueSmooth

muscle

tissue

Connective

tissue

Blood

vessel

(organ)

Cellular level

Cells are made up of

molecules

Tissue level

Tissues consist of

similar types of cells

Organ level

Organs are made up

of different types

of tissues

Chemical level

Atoms combine to

form molecules

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Levels of Structural Organization

Figure 1.1, step 5

Smooth muscle cellMolecules

Atoms

Smooth

muscle

tissue

Epithelial

tissueSmooth

muscle

tissueConnective

tissue

Blood

vessel

(organ)Cardio-

vascular

system

Cellular level

Cells are made up of

molecules

Tissue level

Tissues consist of

similar types of cells

Organ level

Organs are made up

of different types

of tissues

Organ system level

Organ systems consist of different

organs that work together closely

Chemical level

Atoms combine to

form molecules

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Paryono/Anatomi/Poltekkes Ska 03/12/2011

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Levels of Structural Organization

Figure 1.1, step 6

Smooth muscle cellMolecules

Atoms

Smooth

muscle

tissue

Epithelial

tissueSmooth

muscle

tissueConnective

tissue

Blood

vessel

(organ)Cardio-

vascular

system

Cellular level

Cells are made up of

molecules

Tissue level

Tissues consist of

similar types of cells

Organ level

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