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Kunjunni Raja Mimamsa 1988 Opt

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  • 5/14/2018 Kunjunni Raja Mimamsa 1988 Opt

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    SANSKRIT SERIES No. 2

    M T M A M S A c 0 NT RIB UTI 0 NTO

    LAN G UA G E -S T U DIE S .

    ByDr. K.KUNJUNNIRAJA

    DEPARTMENl'OFSANSKRITUNIVER.SITY, OF CALICUT .

    , 1 9 8 8

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    CALICUT UNIVERSITY SANSKRIT SERIESNQ .2

    MTMAMSA CONTRIBUTIO;N,TO

    ,L AN G U AGE S T u 0, I E SI

    ByDr. K. KUN.JUNNIRAJA

    DEPARTMENT OF SANSKRITUNIVERSITY OF CALICUT

    , 1988

    1454 3,-,'t,. 1 N D . . : .- - S e p , 1 9 9 0Ph/l*i.T ...1... - 1D0

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    PubHsli.~dBYDepartment of SanskritUniversity of CalicutCalicut University Po.673635. Kerala.Firs t Published March 1988. Printed "at.'',. ~Printex India Feroke.

    PREFACE

    It isa matter of great pleasure for the Department ofSanskrit to publish the first 'Prof. M. S. Menon EndowmentLectures' 'in a book form. This is the second book in the"Calicut University Sanskrit Series', the first being TheC ata log ue o f Manuscripts.

    The Department of Sanskrit started in 1977. Prof. M. S.'Menon, a renowned scholar-critic and the founder head ofthe Department, ret ired from service on 30th September 1985.Then his colleagues and students decided to raise a fund tostar t a ser ies of annual endowment lectures on different topicsof Sanskrit language and literature and Indian Philosophy.With the encouragement showered on them by the Universityauthorities, especially the then Vice-Chancellor Mr. T. N.Jayachandran, 'Prof . M. S. Menon Endowment ' was insti tutedsoon. Dr. K.'Kunjunni Raja, Hon. Director of the AdyarLibrary and Research .Centre, was invited to deliver the first'Prof. M. S. Menon Endowment Lectures' on "Mimarp.saContribution to Language Studies" on 14th, 15th and 16thOctober 1986.

    The various systems of Indian Philosophy have madesubstantial contribution to Linguist ics and all ied discipl ines.Of these systems M i m a r p s a stands in the forefront. Dr. Rajahad already discussed many points in regard to tbis in hisIndian Theories of Meaning and Language 0/ Poetry and in agood number of research papers. In this booklet he dealswith the contribution of Mimam.sa to language studies. in asuccint manner. The definition of the word 'M'imarp.sa' isdisoussedffrs t. This is fol lowed by a brief survey of importantMimatpsa works, along with the main tneories of interpre-tations according to that philosophy. Then Dr. Raja givesus a general idea of the att itude of MimalTlsatowards languageand Kumarilabhatta's observations on foreign loan words inSanskri t. Theories of sentence meaning put forward by eminent

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    Mimfu:p.sakas are discussed in some detail in the last sectionof the work.

    I am profoundly grateful to the University authoritiesfor allotting sufficient fund for publishing these endowmentlectures. Thanks are due to Dr. Kunjunni Raja for deliveringtheIectures and giving permission for including this workin the Calicut University Sanskrit Series. Iam thankful tomy' colleagues in the Department of Sanskrit for their a~tiveco-operation in all the works 'of the Department, especiallyfor the help extended by them in conducting the EndowmentLectures and pri!'ting this booklet.

    C. U. Campus,15. 3. 1988.

    Dr. N. V.P. UNITHIRIHead, Department of Sanskrit

    M IMAMSA CONTRIBUTION TOI,.ANGUAGESTUD1ES

    The Purvamtmamsa, briefly called. Mimamsa,and theUttaramlmamsa, well known as Vedanta, form two' amongthe six . systems or orthodox Hindu darsarias. The termmimarpsa means "full discussion", "reflection" or "investi-gation ". It is of interest to note that neither Jaimini, authorof the Sutras, nor Sabara, author of the Bhasya, refers to the. system. by the term Mimal11sa. The termnyaya or maxims isoften used as a synonym and the Mlmamsakas are raferredto as Nyayavida'r) .. The term Mimarp.S tI is used ito the systemperhaps for the first time in the Yajnvalkyasmfti(Ist Cent. A. D.)

    PuraJ;lanyayamimarp3adharma~astrari.gamisrital;l /. vedal;! sthanani vidyanam dharrnasya ca caturdasa / / (1.3)Kumarilabhatta calls it Mimarpsa and says that the methods

    and modalities of the investigation iof dharma will be doneby Mimarpsa.Dharrne pramfyamalJ.e hi vedena karanatmana f "itikarta vyatabhagam I.lllmarp.sapurayi$yati 1 /

    The pre-Samkara Btiddhi~t writers like Dignaga and Bhavya .(580 A. D .) also refer to the' system my the term Mima: tpsa.The term MImarps8

    The term Mima-lllsa in the sense of ' investigation" is foundused in Early Vedic literature ~itself without' any reference tothe system: S aifjil an and as ya m im iiq ls a bhavati ( Tai. Up. II.S)"mah!i.Srotrlya'r) . sdmetva mimarpsiim cakru'r}." eCho Up. V. XI. 1\The Srauta siitras also use theterin in the general sense ofdhieussion. and investigation.

    Incidentally it may be noted that the term mimarpsa, derivedfromm'4 to measure though: having the suffix sa n is not desi-

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    ~.

    2derative in sense. The desiderative sense forsan is given byPa:;:ini in therule dh i ilo l: ] . sa .m i in :lk2rt l 'k l id icchay lim tUI. 1. 7. ;two rules giving sa n suffix t

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    4

    bhakara'son $abarqbhii~ya.ontHFBha.ha. school include Parthasarathl

    (c.. A. 'Q.lOM),I3.t;lt"hor.o the $r1stradipika.and the Vyayara-tnamaIa aJid$omesvarl3. (c .A . .0.1200) author of the Nyayasudha, ,,ThePrabl Ifika,raschoolfound an able exponent in SaIikaniitha(c. A. D .. , 8 0 0 , . commentator d~ the Bthat; and author ofthe indep~ndent ' .PrakaraQapancikii.Tattvabindu by Vacaspati-'JJjjsra eS50 i},. ~).) and the M iil1ttmeyodaya by two scholarsof.Keralllwitb. i thei .n.ame. :Nar ayaillla (c. A. D. 1600 and. c~A. O.."j'~5(,)).di!!ci~sS epistemo!ogicaJ'andlhiguistic problems.Th~ N.ititattvav!rbhii:V40fCidiaaanda (A D. 1300)which has,a commentary by Paramesvara is also an.lmportant work. '

    Qne of the most' infJuentiaf:schooIsi of philosophy at the, timeof Saxnkar.a Wasthe. Mi.marpsi ischool.al ld~ -Sarpkara em-.phat ical ly denies the utili ty .o f thekatmamiirga for final re-lease; but the. attitude of , earlyVediinta'se'hdJats doesnot seem,to be soseve~eagainst the Mimarpsakas. Jaimini and Sa-barasvilmm.' ' .did not. take any fnterest in the problem off iaal to lease . ibut later, \",riteFs hadt0 take it inte'rapanca and Bhaskaraadvbcated foanakwmasamuccaya.However,in his Advaitasystem $arp.k;ara'Yl lS vehemently criti cal ,of .~he ea rlie r views

    5and. rejected karma altogether as a means for final release.$atp.kara held that the world is an illusion-felt by man be-cause of his innate igllorarice,llnd that this ignorance canperemoved only by knowledge, and 110t b y actions Releaseis only the realiza.tiop of one's-Identity with the ultimatereality Brahman: actually there is no release, but only. therealization that be is always free, being one with Brahman .The Mi~atp.sakas on the other hand tried to explain mok~a'or release in their own way. They say that there .are fourkinds of action ordained by the scriptures, Compulsory acts, ~r nityakarmas are to. be performed by householders; thesedo not produce any positive result. but their nonperformancewill produce evil consequences . Theseconditype of religio.usact v a r e occasional, and specific; to be performed on thefuUm~on day etc.; they are also similar. The 'thin1 type of.religious acts' are called kamyakarmas, opt ional acts to. be perfor-med if-some specific results are intended. The. fourth type of.aCts is, consti tuted of prohibit ions; ifperformed they will bringsin to the doer. The Mimatp.sakas argue that by performingthe first two types of acts, and avoiding the other two, onecan avoid the results of past karma's and attain the goal ofsupreme happiness which is moksa. When the cause of miseryj'~M1)l:O\,ed. t~eql,iudj sl lbletQ enjoy the bliss which is the realnatwe; 9~ithe soul, as indicated by the scriptural pasaages . likednandam brahman rl lpam; tacca mokso 'bhivyajyafe. The MiilW-meyodaya puts it clearly thus: ,

    Ni~iddhakiimyakannabhyab sam,yak vyavr tt ll ,Ceias ll .Q ' /;Dityanaimittikaprayascittl1pradhvastadu~ krte{l//SukhaduQ.khaQubhil t ibhyam k!? l1) . apr~ rabdhakarOl~a . l. l1yuktasya br sh macaryadya ir anga ih ~amadarn8.dibhi l}. /IkurViil ;lasycltmamimrupsi im vedantoktena var tm analmuktihsampady sadyo nityaate nandaprakasini. IIFor one whose mind is \VeI! withdrawn from the prohi,bited ,and optional rituals, wh -se .sins are des troyed by the

    obligatory and .oecasiena] rituals and by expiatory 'rites"Whose karmans that have begun to take effect are exhausted

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    " 6

    '. Th0UgJiSaI1il'karaatta~lcs ': the karmamdrgai, he'say .that.vthe religious.~cts .ordained in the Vedas are comp-letely useless ; because hehas to accept the validity of all. Vedic passages; If performed with detachment, they are.helpful ill purifying the mind; they also restrain man fromhis natural. i~puIStsand.desire for' worldly pleasure. In. theNaika , .myasid .dhi 0.49) Suresvasaputs-i t-in a succ inc t manner:

    .;PratyakpraVl!.Da,tam .:Duddhel,l brin~t,lyutp~d~a SuddhitaJ.:! : !krtar tM,nyastam:ayati pravTslante ' gha-nav Iva./ ,

    '. S:!p:Ukara hiOlsrl f s.a,~s) in the' U,padesasii .hasi ' i I1.1'7 . f2)., WheQ. tb,~.: mip9.~bvc9mes pure l ike . a mirror., knowledgeshines for th; . .theJ;efQre. (the m}nds~9llld be 'purified), 'The mind.is purified by: abstention, the permanentrjtes, sacrifices andausterities". (M,ayeda).Jr~J,1sJation) ..."

    .: E ven when dis~gteeingwith .the views 8f' MltuihllSakas$a1flkataaccept~d iJre ~ethod '"of interpretation. of sentencesas' ev6'ivefi 'by the .'Mimiirl1sa

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