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Irigasi Sprinkler Compatibility Mode

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DefinitionPressurized irrigation through devices called sprinklers Sprinklers are usually located on pipes called laterals Water is discharged into the air and hopefully infiltrates near where it lands

Kesesuaian PemakaianTanamanCocok hampir semua tanaman (pohon, semak, hamparan), dapat disiramkan di atas atau di bawah kanopi Tidak cocok untuk beberapa jenis sayuran yang mudah rusak karena tetesan air

Kemiringan lahanCocok untuk lahan datar maupun bergelombang

TanahPaling cocok untuk tanah pasiran, tapi cocok untuk hampir semua tipe tekstur

Air irigasiCocok untuk air yang bersih dan bebas sedimen

Fixed sprinkler

Traveling Volume Gun Sprinkler Irrigating

Travelling gun sprinkler

Permanent LateralLaterals are permanently placed (enough to irrigate the entire area) Laterals are usually buried, with risers or pop-up sprinklers popEasily automated and popular for some agriculture/hort applications agriculture/hort Capital investment can be high

Solidset sprinkler

Periodically Moved LateralSingle lateral is moved and used in multiple locations Examples:HandHand-move Tow-line/skidTow-line/skid-tow (lateral is pulled across the field) SideSide-roll (lateral mounted on wheels that roll to move the lateral)

Fairly high labor requirement

Portable Solid-Set Sprinkler System Solid-

SideSide-roll wheel-move sprinkler wheel-

SideSide-Roll Sprinkler Lateral

Moving LateralSingle lateral moves automatically (mounted on wheeled towers) Examples:Center pivots (lateral pivots in a circle) Linear or lateral move systems (lateral moves in a straight line)

Fairly high capital investment

Center Pivot System with Spray Pad Sprinklers

Komponen Irigasi Curahpompa mainline

sumber lateral


Contoh untuk sprinkler tak bergerak

System Components (5)LateralsPipelines that provide water to the sprinklers May be below, on, or above the ground

RisersSmaller diameter pipes used to bring water from the lateral to the sprinkler Purposes Raises the sprinkler so that the plants won't interfere with the water jet Reduces turbulence of the water stream as it reaches the sprinkler

Mainlines and submainsPipelines that supply water to the laterals May serve several laterals simultaneously

Impact SprinklersSprinklersDevices (usually brass or plastic) with one or more small diameter nozzles

Impact sprinklersDrive or range nozzle (hits sprinkler arm and throws water out farther) Spreader nozzle (optional; Applies more water close to the sprinkler) Trajectory angles PartPart-circle sprinklers Used in all types of irrigation, but especially agricultural crops

Impact Sprinklers

RainBird 30

RainBird 14

RainBird 70

Impact SprinklersTwoTwo-nozzle, bronze impact sprinkler Range (Drive) Nozzle

Impact Arm Trajectory Angle

Spreader Nozzle


System Components (2)GearGear-driven rotors (rotary heads)Energy in the water turns a turbine that rotates the nozzle through a gear train Typically used in large, open landscape areas

TurbineTurbine-driven rotor w/ adjustable spray angle

System Components (3)Spray Pad devicesWater jet strikes a plate or pad Pad spreads the water and may be smooth or serrated Popular on center pivot and linear move systems

Spray Pad Sprinklersozzle

Smooth Deflector Pad

Serrated Deflector Pad

PopPop-Up Spray HeadFullFull-circle, 4-inch, Pop-up spray head w/ Funny Pipe Riser 4Pop-

Pipe Thread-Barb Adapters Thread-

Funny Pipe Riser

System Components (4)Spray headsHeads do not rotate Nozzle is shaped to irrigate a certain angle of coverage Typically used for small or irregularly shaped areas PopPop-up heads are installed flush with ground and rise when pressurized

PopPop-up spray head with adjustable coverage angle from 1 - 360

PopPop-up, turbine rotor with riser extended

PopPop-Up Turbine Rotor Sprinklers in Operation

Kinerja sprinklerDebit sprinkler Jarak lemparan Pola distribusi RataRata-rata aplikasi Ukuran tetesan (droplets)

Sprinkler Performance (1)DischargeDepends on type of sprinkler, nozzle size, and operating pressure

q s = 29.82Cd D



qs = discharge (gpm) Cd = discharge coefficient for the nozzle and sprinkler 0.96 D = inside diameter of the nozzle (inches) P = water pressure at the nozzle (psi)

Sprinkler Performance (2)Diameter of CoverageMaximum diameter wetted by the sprinkler at a rate that is significant for the intended use Depends on operating pressure and sprinkler and nozzle design (including trajectory angle)

Single Sprinkler

Pengaruh Tekanan Air

No wind

Elongated parallel pattern

Distribusi air dari sprinkler

Overlapped Sprinklers

Dry zone

Overlapped SprinklersUniform Application: Overlap 50% of sprinkler wetted diameter

NonNon-uniform Application: Overlap 70%) 70%)

Sprinkler Uniformity Test

(catch cans placed on a 5 ft x 5 ft grid)

AdequacyBecause of nonuniformity, there is a tradeoff nonuniformity, between excessive deep percolation and plant water stress Adequacy: the percent of the irrigated area that receives the desired depth of water or more Figure 5.3 (a d)Plotting the percentage of area in the field that receives a given depth of irrigation water or more gives a distribution uniformity curve Irrigating for a longer or shorter time moves the curve up or down System modifications may be required to change the shape of the curve

Figure 5.3a


Fig 5.3b


Figure 5.3c


Figure 5.3d


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