H A R B O R

Date post:11-Feb-2016
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H A R B O R. Harbor  kapal dapat masuk dan berlindung dari angin & gelombang Port  harbor dengan fasilitas untuk docking, cargo handling & storage, dan transfer of passenger Marina  shallow draft harbor terutama untuk kapal-kapal kecil untuk rekreasi . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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  • H A R B O R

  • Harbor kapal dapat masuk dan berlindung dari angin & gelombang

    Port harbor dengan fasilitas untuk docking, cargo handling & storage, dan transfer of passenger

    Marina shallow draft harbor terutama untuk kapal-kapal kecil untuk rekreasi

  • HARBOR ENGINEERINGwaterwaysProtective structuresdocksloadingdischargingrepair}cargo

  • HARBORHARBORnaturalseminaturalartificialdredgingbreakwaterrefugemilitarycommercialmunicipalPrivately owned

  • Karakter Penting untuk Harbor (commercial)Good anchoragesafeEasy access}During any condition of weather and state of tide

  • Size of a harbor: Penggunaan tugs Jumlah dan ukuran kapal Existing site conditions

  • Small Artificial Harborpierschannel400 ft1000 ft750 ft500 ft1500 ft600 ft

  • Usual minimum harbor areaSpace for docksTurning basinFree turningLimited turningRadius 2 length of the largest shipMinimum diameter>20% length of the largest ship

  • Medium-sized artificial harbor with full-sized turning basin1000 ft200 ft200 ft400 ft800 ft1800 ft2250 ftTurning circleSmall boat basin

  • BreakwatersLocation & extentSize & Direction of maximum wavesConfiguration of the shorelineSize of harbor to be protected

  • Tujuan: membuat harbor menjadi tenang

    Untuk comfortable breathing: wave height < 2 ftsebaiknya wind speed < 10 15 mi / h

    Note : angin & arus sering lebih mengganggu daripada waves

  • Two entrance harborShip entersShip leaves

  • Offshore mooring or Offshore anchorage areaNot feasible or economical to construct a dockShips carrying explosives or dangerous cargoQuarantine inspectionTo await docking spaceTo await favorable weather conditions

  • Harbor entrancewidthfunctionlocationEffects on vertical surfaceSmall harbors 300 ftMedium harbors 400 500 ftLarge harbors 500 1000 ftTo reduce wave heightBe careful with ebb & flood tide (current)!!!On the lee sidereflectionscourIncreased wave heights

  • NOTE:>> arus dari ebb & flood harus dicegah dari melebihi 4 ft/s, karena akan mengakibatkan gangguan navigasi dan scour

    >> untuk mencegah scour pada dinding vertikal: Wave-deflecting walls Buat beach (wave-absorbing beach) Buat hollow structure Wave traps

  • CHANNEL DEPTHMain criteria : sufficient depth to permit navigation at lowest low water when ships are fullt-loadedFaktor lain:# surge of the ship (about one half the wave height)# squat when in motion# 1 m (2 4 ft) clearance under the keel# type of the bottom (soft mud / sand / hard rock)# draft of the largest ship (eg: supertankers deadweight tonnage = 300.000 tons; draft > 80 ft)# tides : - artificial tidal working of ports - natural tidal working of ports

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