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CENDAWAN DAN PARASIT

Cendawan Srikandi Fardiaz (1992) :Suatu organisme eukariotik yang mempunyai ciri-ciri ;Mempunyai inti selMemproduksi sporaTidak mempunyai klorofil ( melakukan fotosintesa)Berkembang biak secara seksual maupun aseksualBeberapa mempunyai bagian-bagian tubuh berbentuk filamen dengan dinding sel yang mengandung selulosa atau khitin, atau kedua-duanya.Parasit : organisme menempel yang dapat bersifat patogenik dan fatal pada infeksi yang berat

Parasitisme : hubungan antara dua organisme dimana salah satunya bergantung hidup pada yang lainnya untuk mengambil keuntungan pada inang. Biasanya keuntungan yang diambil adalah nutrisi.

CENDAWAN DAN PARASIT

Bermanfaat / menguntungkanYang bermanfaat diantaranya adalah : -Fermentasi alcohol, pembuatan tempe, menghasilkan antibiotik (Penicillium notatum). - Jamur yang bisa dimakan edible Mushrom (Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus ostreatus) dll Sebagai sumber obat-obatan Sebagai pengurai bahan organikSebagai pengendali penyakit secara hayati

Merugikan : Sebagai pathogen

CENDAWAN

CENDAWAN

CENDAWAN DIBEDAKAN MENJADI 3 GOLONGAN :1.KAPANG/JAMUR/MOLD2. KHAMIR/RAGI/YEAST3. CENDAWAN DIMORFIK CENDAWANKAPANG

Multiselluler Membentuk benang-benang hifa / filamentHifa yang dibentuk ada yang bersekat maupun tak bersekatMemproduksi spora Bersifat aerobKoloni berbentuk rhizoidReproduksi seksual atau aseksual CENDAWANKHAMIR/YEAST

Uniselluler Bentuk oval / lonjong dengan diameter 3 15 mikron, Reproduksi asekual membentuk tunas (budding cell) atau membelah diri (fussion) ; seksual dengan sporaBersifat aerob atau anaerobKoloni berbentuk pasta, hypha

CENDAWANCENDAWAN DIMORFIK

Merupakan jamur yang mempunyai dua bentuk yaitu : khamir dan kapang. Berbentuk khamir jika berada di dalam inang / host atau pada suhu inkubasi 37 derajat C, dan berbentuk kapang jika berada diluar inangnya atau pada suhu inkubasi suhu ruang.

CENDAWAN

Khamir/yeastSaccharomyces sp

Fungi/mold/kapangSaprolegnia sp

Cendawan dimorfikBlastomyces dermatitidis

CENDAWANMORFOLOGI FUNGI

CENDAWANMORFOLOGI FUNGI

CENDAWANSIKLUS HIDUP

CENDAWANSIKLUS HIDUP

A. Yeast cells reproducing by blastoconidia formation; B. Yeast dividing by fission; C. Pseudohyphal development; D. Coenocytic hyphae; E. Septate hyphae; F. Septate hyphae with clamp connections

CENDAWANCENDAWAN DI IKAN

First example of a fungal infection noted in fish was illustrated by Arderon in 1748 as mentioned, they produce a motile biflagellate spore (easy dispersal)also produce a thick-walled zoospore by the fusion of two gametes; thus, oospore and their name usually manifested as hyphae Class Oomycetes

(1) SaprolegniasisAlthough there are four Orders within the Class Oomycetes, almost all of the significant fish pathogens are within Family Saprolegniaceaesaprolegniasis is the term used to describe infection with Saprolegnia parasitica-declina complexit is typically external, affecting skin and gills, sometimes eggs

SaprolegniasisAs mentioned, the adult form is a mass of filaments known as hyphaethe mass is called a mycelium (looks like a wad of cotton in the water)hyphae are unique in that they are non-septate (no divisions)the asexual biflagellated zoospores are thought to initiate most infections

SaprolegniasisEcology: ubiquitous, most surface fresh waters, limited to no greater than 2.8 pptcan live on dead or live matter, affect only fish which have been compromised in some way:suppression of immune system (unfavorable temps)injury to skin (trauma)spawning or precocious sexual maturity (thickened epithelium = more mucus)no seasonal (temp) restrictions to infections with eggs

SaprolegniasisClinical features: seen as gray-white lesions (patches) on skin, could be colored due to whats in culture waterlesions start small and circular, but spreadcan sometimes damage internal organsall fish are susceptibleonly unfertilized eggs can be penetrated by hyphae

SaprolegniasisControl: for the fish, use good management techniques, avoid predisposing factors (feed, injury, water quality esp. temp)Treatment: malachite green as topical disinfectant (not approved), formalin is approved but not as effective

19Saprolegniasis: life cycle

Saprolegniasis: hyphae

Saprolegniasis

Saprolegniasis

myceliumSaprolegniasis

Saprolegniasis

Fish eggs with Saprolegniasis (2) BranchiomycosisThis disease is commonly referred to as gill rotdue to massive necrosis of gillsBranchiomycosis sp. fungus invades gill blood vesselseither B. sanguinis (only in gill blood vessels); carp, goldfishor B. demigrans (grows from blood vessels to tissue); bass, pike, striped bassBranchiomycosisEpizootiology: sudden on-set, rapid course, high mortality (within two days sometimes), overall morts = 30-50%usually when temps above 20oCWhy? High organic loads, algae, high temps, high densitytransmission: probably horizontal from other necrotic gills (spores)BranchiomycosisClinical features: disease course so fast that fish are dead before any signs; fish go off feed, school at surface, become sluggishlater: necrotic patches on gills (much clubbing, fusion of lamellae)Histopath: hyperplasia of gill epithelium, fusion of lamellae, massive necrosisControl: treatment ineffective due to rapid on-set; strict hygiene, remove dead fish, dont overfeed, fertilize, crowdBranchiomycosis

Fungal Disease (3): Ichthyophoniasis (Zygomycotina)Originally found by Bruno Hofer in trout in 1893, called disease the staggerscaused by Ichthyophonus hoferi also classified as Ichthyosporidium hoferiusually seen as thick, fungus-like resting sporesendemic in most feral cold water marine fish populationsdisease transmitted orallyit is an obligate fish pathogen: life history varies from host to hostIchythophoniasisLife cycle complicated: produces large number of endospores and resting spores in most internal organsusually comes from other fish in populationClinical Features: hyphae are not visible externally, can affect up to 70% of population is fungus is in epizootic yearsHistopathology: signs depend on host, organs involved; generally, as gray-white lesions of organ, organ atrophyControl: disease transmitted orally; obviously, dont feed infected fish to fish (some people feed raw marine fish offal to hatchery fish)Ichythophoniasis

Ichythophoniasis

Ichthyophoniasis (I. hoferi)

Fungal Disease (4): Aspergillomycosis These agents are members of the Fungi ImperfectiFungi imperfecti simply means you cant find sexual stages in the life cycle of the fungusassociated with genus, Aspergillus (those of you who have had Aquatic Nutrition remember this guy, right?!)the Aspergilli are ubiquitous and typically involved in decay processesbyproducts of degradation of feeds = aflatoxicosisAspergillomycosisOnly recently discovered as a pathogen of farmed fish (1983)largely described for cultured Tilapiausually seen after any stress in terms of management of fish in ponds (partial harvest, weighing, etc.)Pathology: abdominal distension, darkening of color, lethargy; incision of body cavity = copious amounts of fluidlook for hyphae in liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, swim bladderEpizootiology: mortalities of at least 20% of stockShrimp Mycosis: LagenidiumThis disease largely caused by Lagenidium callinectes or Sirolpidium sp.two fungal agents can cause rapid mortality of entire tankfungi have similar life cycles, producing hyphae which spread throughout the bodymajor signs: dead or moribund larvae show obvious hyphae, death in 3-5 days if untreatedLarval Mycosis: LagenidiumEpizootiology: unknown, possibly from broodstock, previously infected batches of larvae, contaminated source water; spread by motile zoosporesDiagnosis: simple due to obvious hyphal structures in infected animalsControl: Treflan @ 10 to 100 ppb; Treflan unstable in water, must be dripped in or re-applied every 5-8 hrs; disinfection of tank and apparatiLagenidium callinectes

Shrimp Mycosis: Fusarium sp.We have already mentioned Lagenidium callinectes and Sirolpidium sp.These were agents of larval mycosisOne common fungi affecting adults is Fusarium sp., member of fungi imperfectiCauses disease known as fusariosislargely associated with broodstock, particularly of Farfantepenaeus japonicus and Litopenaeus stylirostrisL. vannamei appears fairly resistantFusarium sp.Fusariosis is a problem when several contributing factors are present:age: shrimp are typically older (adult, broodstock)cuticle wounding: due to rough handling, crowding, rough container surfaces improper sanitationMajor Signs: melanized, raised or nodular lesions on cuticle, appendages, gills (fungus cannot penetrate intact cuticle)often found on tips of appendages Fusarium sp.Mortality rates of infected shrimp vary due to complex relationship between host, fungus and secondary bacterial infectionstress in combination with infection can cause increased handling mortality (esp. shipping)Transmission: Fusarium is naturally-occurring fungus of decaying organic matter, produces non-motile infective spores (macroconidia) infection is passive through wound, conidia germinate and produce hyphae which penetrate underlying tissuesFusarium sp.Diagnosis: presence of lesions in broodstock or adults, demonstration of hyphae, canoe-shaped macroconidia, culture on std mycological mediaControl Strategies: no practical treatment, prevention a matter of proper husbandry, sanitation, adequate facilitiesavoid procedures/conditions leading to cuticle damagecull out infected broodstock, adultsFusarium sp.

Ectoparasites are parasites that live on the surface of a host, while endoparasites live in thehosts interior. For example, m

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