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ENERGY METABOLISM - mencari dan memberi yang (in the absorptive ... 20files/homeostasis _2a.pdf....

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  • ENERGY METABOLISM KATRIN ROOSITA, MSI.

  • METABOLISME ENERGI

  • Fig 1. METABOLISM

    (Courtesy: Rimbawan, 2007)

  • Organ utama

    pengaturan

    metabolisme: hati,

    jaringan lemak

    (adipose), otot , dan

    otak.

    Peran: penyimpanan,

    penggunaan dan

    penyediaan sumber

    energi (substrat).

  • SISTEM PENGATURAN

    METABOLISME

    KETER SEDIAAN

    SUBSTRAT

    SISTEM HORMON

    SISTEM SARAF

  • Hubungan

    substrat hormon- sistem

    saraf

    Substrat (glukosa dan protein)

    mempengaruhi sekresi hormon

    Hormon dan sistem saraf mengatur

    metabolisme dan transport substrat.

  • Kadar glukosa plasma vs sekresi hormon

  • HORMON UTAMA METABOLISME

  • EFEK BIOLOGIS GLUKAGON

  • http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • Fungsi insulin

    en.wikipedia.org

  • http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • CONTOH:

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • Aktivitas insulin di Sel Target

  • Ketersediaan Substrat

    Berbeda antara kondisi:

    - post absorpsi

    - puasa/starvation

    - olahraga berat

    - terjadi gangguan metabolisme dan kondisi

    sakit.

  • POST ABSORPTIVE STATE

    2 - 4 HOURS period after

    ingestion of a normal meal :

    POST ABSORPTIVE STATE

    INCREASES in plasma glucose, amino acids, and

    triacylglycerols

    baby-growths.com

  • lipogenesis

  • MECHANISMS OF HEPATIC- AMINO ACID

    METABOLISM (in the absorptive period)

    The surplus amino acids ARE NOT STORED, but are either:

    a. released into the blood for all tissues to use in

    protein synthesis,

    b. they are with the resulting carbon skeletons being

    degraded by the liver pyruvate, acetyl CoA, or TCA

    cycle intermediates, these metabolites can be

    oxidized for energy or used in fatty acid synthesis.

  • METABOLISM OF

    ADIPOSE TISSUE

    in Post Absorptive State

    A. Carbohydrate metabolism

    1. Increased glucose transport

    2. Increased glycolysis:.

    3. Increased activity in the hexose monophosphate (HMP) pathway.

  • B. Fat Metabolism

    1. Increased synthesis of fatty

    acids.

    2. Increased triacylglycerol

    synthesis

    3. Decreased triacylglycerol

    degradation

  • METABOLISM OF RESTING MUSCLE

    in Postabsorptive State

    1. Increased glucose transport

    2. Increased glycogen synthesis 3. Increased protein synthesis 4. Increased uptake of amino acids.

  • METABOLISM OF BRAIN IN

    POSTABSORPTIVE STATE

  • http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdf

  • FASTING METABOLISM

    Fasting

    a. an inability to obtain food,

    b. the desire to lose weight rapidly,

    c. in clinical situations in which an individual cannot eat because of trauma, surgery, burns, and so forth.

    Physiology of Fasting: the absence of food, plasma levels of glucose, amino acids, and triacylglycerols fall, triggering a decline in insulin secretion and an increase in glucagon release.

  • This sets into motion an exchange of substrates between

    liver, adipose tissue, muscle, and brain :

    1. the need to maintain adequate plasma levels of glucose

    to sustain energy metabolism of the brain and other

    glucose-requiring tissues.

    2. the need to mobilize fatty acids from adipose tissue, and

    the synthesis and release of ketone bodies from the

    liver, to supply energy to all other tissues.

    INSULIN / GLUCAGON RATIO

    availability of circulating substrates

    CATABOLIC PERIOD: by degradation of triacylglycerol, glycogen, and protein.

  • Diseases and Blood Sugar

    Regulation

    Elevated glucose levels are present in diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, liver disease, and hyperthyroidism.

    Decreased glucose levels are present in Addison's disease, hyperinsulinism, and hypothyroidism.

    The most prevalent of these diseases is diabetes mellitus (DM).

    Type I DM (insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset) diabetes mellitus, when pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by an erroneous attack by the body's own immune system.

    Type II DM, insulin secretion is not reduced; however, there is a reduced sensitivity of target cells to insulin, a phenomenon known as insulin resistance. (Paul I, 2007).

  • OVERVIEW OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS

    AND SYSTEMS OF ENERGY METABOLISM

    GLYCOGEN PROTEIN TRIACYLGLYCEROLS

    Pyruvate

    Nucleic

    Acids

    Ribose-5-P

    Acetyl-CoA

    Amino

    Acids Glucose-6-P Glucose

    Lactate

    Ketone

    Bodies

    Free Fatty Acids

    ATP Figure 2. Energy systems (DR. RImbawan, 2007)

    Urea/NH3

    H2O CO2

  • METABOLISME ENERGI SAAT

    AKTIVITAS FISIK (OLAH RAGA)

  • METABOLISME GLIKOGEN

    Liver glycogen stores increase during

    the well-fed state .

    Muscle glycogen is not affected by

    short periods of fasting (a few days)

    and is only moderately decreased in

    prolonged fasting (weeks).

    Muscle glycogen is synthesized to

    replenish muscle stores after they

    have been depleted, for example,

    following strenuous exercise.

  • Terima kasih atas

    perhatiannya

    alternativemagazineonline.co.uk

  • REFERENCES

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF%20files/homeostasis

    _2a.pdf. Insulin_Glucagon Role in Metabolism.pdf

    Tom Brody. Nutritional Biochemistry, 2nd edition,

    Academic Press, 1999

    Pamela C. Champe & Richard A. Harvey

    Biochemistry, 2nd edition, J.B. Lippincott Company,

    Philadelphia, 1994.

    Illingworth. 2007. Biochemistry for Biologists

    Fitness Training.

    www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/.../bioc1110/index.htm .

    Rimbawan, 2007. Metabolism Slides

    http://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdfhttp://www.medbio.info/Horn/PDF files/homeostasis_2a.pdfInsulin_Glucagon Role in Metabolism.pdfhttp://www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/.../bioc1110/index.htm

  • Review Article

    Teori Dasar Biokimia ttg:

    a. Regulasi : hormonal dan saraf

    b. Ketersediaan Substrat

    c. Parameter /biomarker

    d. Metode

    e. Hasil

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